Ottoman Capital Bursa
Area: 11.043 km²
Population: 1.603.137 (1990)
Traffic Code: 16
Bursa is located in the northwest of the Anatolian peninsula and southeast of the Marmara Sea. The shores of the Marmara Sea are 135 km away. The most important peak in the province is Uludağ, which is a ski resort and national park. The most significant lakes are Lake Iznik and Lake Uluabat.
Districts: Nilüfer, Yıldırım, Osman Gazi, Büyük Orhan, Gemlik, Gürsu, Harmancık, İnegöl, İznik, Karacabey, Kales, Kestel, Mudanya, Mustafa Kemal Paşa, Orhaneli, Orhangazi and Yenişehir are the district of Bursa province.
Area : 11.973 km²
Population : 2.694.770 (1990)
Traffic Code : 35
İzmir is the third biggest city in Turkey with a population of around 2.5 million, the second biggest port after Istanbul, and a good transport hub. Once the ancient city of Smyrna, it is now a modern, developed, and busy commercial centre, set around a huge bay and surrounded by mountains and was. The broad boulevards, glass-fronted buildings and modern shopping centres are dotted with traditional red-tiled roofs, the 18th century market, and old mosques and churches, although the city has an atmosphere more of Mediterranean Europe than traditional Turkey.
The climate is comfortable, with a relatively mild summer due to the refreshing breeze from the Aegean. The long attractive palm-fringed promenade, Birince Kordon, which stretches the entire length of the city up to the Alsancak Ferry Terminal, is a popular spot for evening walks, and there are many cafes along the waterfront. Izmir has a good selection of culture and entertainment, from the Archaeological and Ethnographic Museums, to the Izmir State Opera and Ballet and Izmir State Symphony Orchestra, to the many bars and clubs. The cosmopolitan and lively city gets even busier during the International Izmir Festival (mid-June to mid-July) with music and dance, with performances also in nearby Cesme and Ephesus.
Districts : Balcova, Cigli, Gaziemir, Karsiyaka, Konak, Aliaga, Bayindir, Bergama, Beydag, Bornova, Buca, Cesme, Dikili, Foca, Karaburun, Kemalpasa, Kinik, Kiraz, Menderes, Menemen, Narlibahce, Odemis, Seferihisar, Selcuk, Tire, Turbalı and Urla.
Aliağa: Aliağa, which is 60 km. north of İzmir, have signes of İzmir and Bergama civilizations. 4 of the 12 cities, composing the biggest and most important ones among Aiol cities, whose number is exceeding 30 at Aegean coasts, are within Aigaia, Kyme, Myrna and Gryneion province territories.
Dikili: Dikili is a pretty province and popular summer resort, around 120km north of Izmir. Candarli is nearby, and the area is full of natural beauty as well as historical interest. There is a crater lake in Medivenli village, and pine groves and ancient caverns in Demirtas and Delitas. The area is also famous for its hot springs, which can be found in Nebiler, Bademli and Kocaoba villages. The port at Dikili is large enough for three passenger ships, and is a good transport connection.
Seferihisar: Teos antic city at Sığacık region, Karaköse ruins at Doğanbey - Gerenalanı region, former settlement area constructed within castle and castle, constructed by Ottomans at Sığacık, monumental structures of Seljukian and Ottoman period at province center of the province, whose settlement history reaches till 1000 B. C., are composing the archeological and historical source potential of the region. Seferihisar has beautiful beaches and bays with its 27 km. Coastal band.
Menderes: Menderes province, which draws attention with its satsuma, beautiful bays and historical values, is 20 km. away from İzmir. Lebedos Antic City is at west of province at Ürkmez region. Ruins of Kolophon, Klaros, Notion and Lebedos Antic Cities, which are on Menderes - Seljukian road as adjacent to each other, are composing the important archeological sources of the province. Gümüldür borough is the producer region of Satsuma, which is a world famous kind of tangerine. Özdere is one of the nine big tourism regions of Aegean Region, and it is a tourism borough where amateur fishermen can fish besides its clear sea and coast. Various colored and shaped beads which are produced in natives at Görece Village of Menderes, are drawing attention of national and international tourists.
Karaburun: Karaburun is at the northern point of the Urla Peninsula, and its northern and western coasts have beautiful bays surrounding the Izmir bay. There were settlements in this area which date back to the Stone Age, and excavations have indicated it was a developed cultural centre during the Hittite period, then a trading centre during the Aiol, Lydia and Roman civilisations. It is now the newest suburb of Izmir, and has a couple of small guest houses and fish restaurants. Its most dramatic feature is the setting, with villages and orchards clinging to the steep rock face. There is a bus service in the area, although private vehicles offer more possibilities for exploring.
Urla: Urla is in the middle of the peninsula and holds all the characteristics of the Aegean. It lies 38km west of Izmir and used to be a cultural centre with remains unearthed dating back to the Hitties. It was originally the site of the Ionian city of Clazomenae, with probably the oldest regularly used port in the world. Pieces of art and sculpture found during excavations are now exhibited in the Louvre, Athens National Museum and Izmir Archaeology Museum.
Torbalı: An ancient Ionian city, famous for its wines and religious centre, has three marble alters devoted to the Roman Emperor August and his foster child Germanikys, in an ancient theatre which dominates the valley. Pieces of art found during excavations are exhibited in Izmir and Ephesus museums. The town has the remains of an old port and a few holiday complexes, and is set attractively against a pine forest.
Ödemiş: North of Odemis, which is 113km southeast of Izmir, are the ruins of Hypaiapa. The historical importance of the region began with Birgi, west of Odemis, which was the capital during the Aydinogullari period and contained outstanding examples of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. Birgi has been on the World Cultural Heritage list since 1994, and points of interest here include Cakiraga Mansion, Imam-i Birgivi Medrese and Sultan Sah Mausoleum.
Tire: One of the largest towns in the area, Tire is 82km southeast of Izmir and lies at the foot of the Aydin Mountains. Its long cultural heritage includes periods under the Hittites, Frygians, Lydians, Persians, Romans and Byzantines, and developed its strong links with the economy during the Ottoman period. The town has an attractive old quarter with many impressive examples of Islamic architecture, and a lively Tuesday market influenced by the gypsy population in the surrounding villages.
Kemalpaşa: The historical background of Kemalpasa, which lies 29km west of Izmir, dates back to 1300 BC. It was host to the Akkads, Hitties, Seljuk and Ottoman civilisations, and was a resort between the Art and Ion cities during Roman and Byzantine times. The only remains from the Hittites in the Aegean region is the Karabel relief, which is in the province. Previously known in ancient times as Nymphaion, the town lies at the foot of Nif mountain at 200m altitude, and is best known for its cherries and pine forests.
Area: 5.712 km²
Population: 7.309.190 (1990)
Traffic Code: 34
"There, God and human, nature and art are together, they have created such a perfect place that it is valuable to see." Lamartine’s famous poetic line reveals his love for Istanbul, describing the embracing of two continents, with one arm reaching out to Asia and the other to Europe.
Istanbul, once known as the capital of capital cities, has many unique features. It is the only city in the world to straddle two continents, and the only one to have been a capital during two consecutive empires - Christian and Islamic. Once capital of the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul still remains the commercial, historical and cultural pulse of Turkey, and its beauty lies in its ability to embrace its contradictions. Ancient and modern, religious and secular, Asia and Europe, mystical and earthly all co-exist here.
Its variety is one of Istanbul’s greatest attractions: The ancient mosques, palaces, museums and bazaars reflect its diverse history. The thriving shopping area of Taksim buzzes with life and entertainment. And the serene beauty of the Bosphorus, Princes Islands and parks bring a touch of peace to the otherwise chaotic metropolis.
Adalar, Avcılar, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Bakırköy, Beşiktaş, Bayrampaşa, Beykoz, Beyoğlu, Eminönü, Eyüb, Fatih, Gaziosmanpaşa, Kadıköy, Kâğıthane, Kartal, Küçükçekmece, Pendik, Sarıyer, Şişli, Ümraniye, Üsküdar, Zeytinburnu, Büyükçekmece, Çatalca, Silivri, Şile, Esenler, Güngören, Maltepe, Sultanbeyli, Tuzla
Golden Horn: This horn-shaped estuary divides European Istanbul. One of the best natural harbours in the world, it was once the centre for the Byzantine and Ottoman navies and commercial shipping interests. Today, attractive parks and promenades line the shores, a picturesque scene especially as the sun goes down over the water. At Fener and Balat, neighbourhoods midway up the Golden Horn, there are entire streets filled with old wooden houses, churches, and synagogues dating from Byzantine and Ottoman times. The Orthodox Patriarchy resides at Fener and a little further up the Golden Horn at Eyup, are some wonderful examples of Ottoman architecture. Muslim pilgrims from all over the world visit Eyup Camii and Tomb of Eyup, the Prophet Mohammed’s standard bearer, and it is one of the holiest places in Islam. The area is a still a popular burial place, and the hills above the mosque are dotted with modern gravestones interspersed with ornate Ottoman stones. The Pierre Loti Cafe, atop the hill overlooking the shrine and the Golden Horn, is a wonderful place to enjoy the tranquility of the view.
Beyoğlu and Taksim: Beyoglu is an interesting example of a district with European-influenced architecture, from a century before. Europe’s second oldest subway, Tunel was built by the French in 1875, must be also one of the shortest – offering a one-stop ride to start of Taksim. Near to Tunel is the Galata district, whose Galata Tower became a famous symbols of Istanbul, and the top of which offers a tremendous 180 degree view of the city.
From the Tunel area to Taksim square is one of the city’s focal points for shopping, entertainment and urban promenading: Istiklal Cadesi is a fine example of the contrasts and compositions of Istanbul; fashion shops, bookshops, cinemas, markets, restaurants and even hand-carts selling trinkets and simit (sesame bread snack) ensure that the street is packed throughout the day until late into the night. The old tramcars re-entered into service, which shuttle up and down this fascinating street, and otherwise the street is entirely pedestrianised. There are old embassy buildings, Galatasaray High School, the colourful ambience of Balik Pazari (Fish Bazaar) and restaurants in Cicek Pasaji (Flower Passage). Also on this street is the oldest church in the area, St Mary’s Draperis dating back to 1789, and the Franciscan Church of St Antoine, demolished and then rebuilt in 1913.
The street ends at Taksim Square, a huge open plaza, the hub of modern Istanbul and always crowded, crowned with an imposing monument celebrating Attaturk and the War of Independence. The main terminal of the new subway is under the square, adjacent is a noisy bus terminal, and at the north end is the Ataturk Cultural Centre, one of the venues of the Istanbul Theatre Festival. Several five-star hotels are dotted around this area, like the Hyatt, Intercontinental and Hilton (the oldest of its kind in the city). North of the square is the Istanbul Military Museum.
Taksim and Beyoglu have for centuries been the centre of nightlife, and now there are many lively bars and clubs off Istiklal Cadesi, including some of the only gay venues in the city. Beyoglu is also the centre of the more bohemian arts scene.
Sultanahmet: Many places of tourist interest are concentrated in Sultanahmet, heart of the Imperial Centre of the Ottoman Empire. The most important places in this area, all of which are described in detail in the “Places of Interest” section, are Topkapi Palace, Aya Sofia, Sultan Ahmet Camii (the Blue Mosque), the Hippodrome, Kapali Carsi (Covered Market), Yerebatan Sarnici and the Museum of Islamic Art.
In addition to this wonderful selection of historical and architectural sites, Sultanahmet also has a large concentration of carpet and souvenir shops, hotels and guesthouses, cafes, bars and restaurants, and travel agents.
Ortaköy: Ortakoy was a resort for the Ottoman rulers because of its attractive location on the Bosphorus, and is still a popular spot for residents and visitors. The village is within a triangle of a mosque, church and synagogue, and is near Ciragan Palace, Kabatas High School, Feriye, Princess Hotel.
The name Ortakoy reflects the university students and teachers who would gather to drink tea and discuss life, when it was just a small fishing village. These days, however, that scene has developed into a suburb with an increasing amount of expensive restaurants, bars, shops and a huge market. The fishing, however, lives on and the area is popular with local anglers, and there is now a huge waterfront tea-house which is crammed at weekends and holidays.
Sarıyer: The first sight of Sarıyer is where the Bosphorus connects with the Black Sea, after the bend in the river after Tarabya. Around this area, old summer houses, embassies and fish restaurants line the river, and a narrow road which separates it from Buyukdere, continues along to the beaches of Kilyos.
Sarıyer and Rumeli Kavağı are the final wharfs along the European side visited by the Bosphorus boat trips. Both these districts, famous for their fish restaurants along with Anadolu Kavagi, get very crowded at weekends and holidays with Istanbul residents escaping the city.
After these points, the Bosphorus is lined with tree-covered cliffs and little habitation. The Sadberk Hanim Museum, just before Sariyer, is an interesting place to visit; a collection of archaeological and ethnographic items, housed in two wooden houses. A few kilometres away is the huge Belgrade Forest, once a haunting ground of the Ottomans, and now a popular weekend retreat into the largest forest area in the city.
Üsküdar: Relatively unknown to tourists, the suburb of Üsküdar, on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, is one of the most attractive suburbs. Religiously conservative in its background, it has a tranquil atmosphere and some fine examples of imperial and domestic architecture.
The Iskele, or Mihrimah Camii is opposite the main ferry pier, on a high platform with a huge covered porch in front, often occupied by older local men watching life around them. Opposite this is Yeni Valide Camii, built in 1710, and the Valide Sultan’s green tomb rather like a giant birdcage. The Cinili Mosque takes its name from the beautiful tiles which decorate the interior, and was built in 1640.
Apart from places of religious interest, Uskudar is also well known as a shopping area, with old market streets selling traditional local produce, and a good fleamarket with second hand furniture. There are plenty of good restaurants and cafes with great views of the Bosphorus and the rest of the city, along the quayside. In the direction of Haydarpasa is the lhe Karaca Ahmet Cemetery, the largest Muslim graveyard in Istanbul. The front of the Camlica hills lie at the ridge of area and also offer great panoramic views of the islands and river.
Kadıköy: Further south along the Bosphorus towards the Sea of Marmara, Kadıköy has developed into a lively area with up-market shopping, eating and entertainment making it popular especially with wealthy locals. Once prominent in the history of Christianity, the 5th century hosted important consul meetings here, but there are few reminders of that age. It is one of the improved districts of Istanbul over the last century, and fashionable area to promenade along the waterfront in the evenings, especially around the marinas and yacht clubs.
Bagdat Caddesi is one of the most trendy – and label-conscious – fashion shopping streets, and for more down-to-earth goods, the Gen Azim Gunduz Caddesi is the best place for clothes, and the bit pazari on Ozelellik Sokak is good for browsing through junk. In the district of Moda, is the Benadam art gallery, as well as many foreign cuisine restaurants and cafes.
Haydarpaşa: To the north of Kadikoy is Haydarpasa, and the train station built in 1908 with Prussain-style architecture which was the first stop along the Baghdad railway. Now it is the main station going to eastbound destinations both within Turkey, and internationally. There are tombs and monuments dedicated to the English and French soldiers who lost their lives during the Crimean War (1854-56), near the military hospital. The north-west wing of the 19th Century Selimiye Barracks once housed the hospital, used by Florence Nightingale to care for soldiers, and remains to honour her memory.
Polonezköy: Polonezköy, although still within the city, is 25 km. away from the centre and not easy to reach by public transport. Translated as “village of the Poles”, the village has a fascinating history: It was established in 1848 by Prince Czartorisky, leader of the Polish nationals who was granted exile in the Ottoman Empire to escape oppression in the Balkans. During his exile, he succeeded in establishing a community of Balkans, which still survives, on the plot of land sold to him by a local monastery.
Since the 1970s the village has become a popular place with local Istanbulites, who buy their pig meat there (pig being forbidden under Islamic law and therefore difficult to get elsewhere). All the Poles have since left the village, and the place is inhabited now by wealthy city people, living in the few remaining Central European style wooden houses with pretty balconies.
What attracts most visitors to Polonezkoy is its vast green expanse, which was designated Istanbul’s first national park, and the walks though forests with streams and wooden bridges. Because of its popularity, it gets crowded at weekends and the hotels are usually full.
Kilyos: Kilyos is the nearest beach resort to the city, on the Black Sea coast on the European side of the Bosphorus. Once a Greek fishing village, it has quickly been developed as a holiday-home development, and gets very crowded in summer. Because of its ease to get there, 25km and plenty of public transport, it is good for a day trip, and is a popular weekend getaway with plenty of hotels, and a couple of campsites.
Şile: A pleasant, small holiday town, Şile lies 50km from Üsküdar on the Black Sea coast and some people even live here and commute into Istanbul. The white sandy beaches are easily accessible from the main highway, lying on the west, as well as a series of small beaches at the east end. The town itself if perched on a clifftop over looking the bay tiny island. There is an interesting French-built black-and-white striped lighthouse, and 14th century Genoese castle on the nearby island. Apart from its popular beaches, the town is also famous for its craft; Sile bezi, a white muslin fabric a little like cheesecloth, which the local women embroider and sell their products on the street, as well as all over Turkey.
The town has plenty of accommodation available, hotels, guest houses and pansiyons, although can get very crowded at weekends and holidays as it is very popular with people from Istanbul for a getaway, especially in the summer. There are small restaurants and bars in the town.
Prince’s Islands: Also known as Istanbul Islands, there are eight within one hour from the city, in the Marmara Sea. Boats ply the islands from Sirkeci, Kabatas and Bostanci, with more services during the summer. These islands, on which monasteries were established during the Byzantine period, was a popular summer retreat for palace officials. It is still a popular escape from the city, with wealthier owning summer houses.
Buyukada The largest and most popular is Buyukada (the Great Island). Large wooden mansions still remain from the 19th century when wealthy Greek and Armernian bankers built them as holiday villas. The island has always been a place predominantly inhabited by minorities, hence Islam has never had a strong presence here.
Buyukada has long had a history of people coming here in exile or retreat; its most famous guest being Leon Trotsky, who stayed for four years writing ‘The History of the Russian Revolution’. The monastery of St George also played host to the granddaughter of Empress Irene, and the royal princess Zoe, in 1012.
The island consists of two hills, both surmounted by monasteries, with a valley between. Motor vehicles are banned, so getting around the island can be done by graceful horse and carriage, leaving from the main square off Isa Celebi Sokak. Bicycles can also be hired.
The southern hill, Yule Tepe, is the quieter of the two and also home of St George’s Monastery. It consists of a series of chapels on three levels, the site of which is a building dating back to the 12th century. In Byzantine times it was used as an asylum, with iron rings on the church floors used to restrain patients. On the northern hill is the monastery Isa Tepe, a 19th century house.
The entire island is lively and colourful, with many restaurants, hotels, tea houses and shops. There are huge well-kept houses, trim gardens, and pine groves, as well as plenty of beach and picnic areas.
Burgazada Smaller and less of a tourist infrastructure is Burgazada. The famous Turkish novelist, Sait Faik Abasıyanık lived here, and his house has been turned into a museum dedicated to his work, and retains a remarkable tranquil and hallowed atmosphere.
Heybeliada ‘Island of the Saddlebag’, because of its shape, is loved for its natural beauty and beaches. It also has a highly prestigious and fashionable watersports club in the northwest of the island. One of its best-known landmarks is the Greek Orthodox School of Theology, with an important collection of Byzantine manuscripts. The school sits loftily on the northern hill, but permission is needed to enter, from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Fener. The Deniz Harp Okulu, the Naval High School, is on the east side of the waterfront near the jetty, which was originally the Naval War Academy set up in 1852, then a high school since 1985. Walking and cycling are popular here, plus isolated beaches as well as the public Yoruk Beach, set in a magnificent bay. There are plenty of good local restaurants and tea houses, especially along Ayyıldız Caddesi, and the atmosphere is one of a close community.
Environment: Wide beaches of Kilyos at European side of Black Sea at 25th km. outside Istanbul, are attracting Istanbul residents during summer months. Belgrade Forest, inside from Black Sea, at European Side is the widest forest around Istanbul. Istanbul residents, at week ends, come here for family picnic with brazier at its shadows. 7 old water tank and some natural resources in the region compose a different atmosphere. Moğlova Aqueduct, which is constructed by Mimar Sinan during 16th century among Ottoman aqueducts, is the greatest one. 800 m. long Sultan Suleyman Aqueduct, which is passing over Golf Club, and also a piece of art of Mimar Sinan is one of the longest aqueducts within Turkey.
Polonezköy, which is 25 km. away from Istanbul, is founded at Asia coast during 19th century by Polish immigrants. Polonezköy, for walking in village atmosphere, travels by horse, and tasting traditional Polish meals served by relatives of initial settlers, is the resort point of Istanbul residents. Beaches, restaurants and hotels of Şile at Black Sea coast and 70 km. away from Üsküdar, are turning this place into one of the most cute holiday places of Istanbul. Region which is popular in connection with tourism, is the place where famous Şile cloth is produced.
Bayramoğlu - Darıca Bird Paradise and Botanic Park is a unique resort place 38 km. away from Istanbul. This gargantuan park with its trekking roads, restaurants is full of bird species and plants, coming from various parts of the world.
Sweet Eskihisar fisherman borough, to whose marina can be anchored by yachtsmen after daily voyages in Marmara Sea is at south east of Istanbul. Turkey's 19th century famous painter, Osman Hamdi Bey's house in borough is turned into a museum. Hannibal's tomb between Eskihisar and Gebze is one of the sites around a Byzantium castle.
There are lots of Istanbul residents' summer houses in popular holiday place 65 km. away from Istanbul, Silivri. This is a huge holiday place with magnificent restaurants, sports and health centers. Conference center is also attracting businessmen, who are escaping rapid tempo of urban life for "cultural tourism" and business - holiday mixed activities. Scheduled sea bus service is connecting Istanbul to Silivri.
Islands within Marmara Sea, which is adorned with nine islands, was the banishing place of the Byzantium princes. Today they are now wealthy Istanbul residents' escaping places for cool winds during summer months and 19th century smart houses. Biggest one of the islands is Büyükada. You can have a marvelous phaeton travel between pine trees or have a swim within one of the numerous bays around islands!
Other popular islands are Kınalı, Sedef, Burgaz and Heybeliada. Regular ferry voyages are connecting islands to both Europe and Asia coasts. There is a rapid sea bus service from Kabataş during summers.
Area: 13.338 km²
Population: 562.809 (1990)
Traffic Code : 48
The province of Muğla is located at the south of the Aegean Region and is founded at the skirts of the Asar (Hisar) Mountain spreading towards the plain and is a beautiful and clean tourism paradise with its original architecture, whitewashed walls, red roof tiled roofs, authentic chimneys and narrow streets.
Districts : Muğla (center), Bodrum, Dalaman, Datça, Fethiye, Kavaklıdere, Köyceğiz, Marmaris, Milas, Ortaca, Ula, Yatağan.
Area : 20.815 km²
Population : 1.132.211 (1990)
Traffic Code : 07
Because of the archaeological and natural riches of the area, Antalya is also known as the Turkish Riviera. The sun, sea, nature and history combine to form a very popular resort, highlighted by some of the cleanest beaches in the Mediterranean. The 630km shoreline of the province is liberally scattered with ancient cities, harbours, memorial tombs and beaches, secluded coves and lush forests, many of which are easily accessible from the city.
With its palm-lined boulevard, internationally-acclaimed marina, and old castle with traditional architecture, all set amidst a modern city, Antalya is a major tourist centre in Turkey. In addition to the wide selection of hotels, restaurants, bars, nightclubs and shops, the city also plays host to a number of sporting events throughout the year, like International Beach Volleyball, triathlon, golf tournaments, archery, tennis and canoeing competitions. The Cultural Centre, which opened in 1995, hosts cultural and art events in the fields of music, theatre, and creative arts. The main area of interest in the city is central old quarter within the Roman walls, known as Kaleici, and there are many good museums.
Districts: Akseki, Alanya, Elmali, Finike, Gazipasa, Gundogmus, Ibradi, Kale, Kas, Kemer, Korkutali, Kumluca, Manavgat and Serik are all towns in the province of Antalya.
After Alanya, Akseki is the oldest district in the province of Antalya, and has an appearance that befits its location in the rugged Taurus mountains, in a forested and very rocky area. The history of Akseki extends back to the Roman era, when it was known as Marla (Marulya), and has been continually inhabited until the present day. The developments in the tourism sector in the Antalya region in recent years have been seen in Akseki as well. The area is well known for the snowdrop flower, and every years sees local and foreign visitors coming every winter to see these flowers breaking through the snow, as the first sign of spring.
In the Giden Gelmez Mountains, goats are protected and limited hunting is available year-round with the purchase of a license. Another spot frequented by visitors is the trout farming facilities in the villages of Sinan hoca and Gumusdamla. The primary game in the area is mountain goat, rabbit, bear and fox.
Other areas worth visiting are the Goktepe Highland, Giden Gelmez Mountains, Cimi Highland, Irmak Valley and the 340-metre deep Bucaklan Cave, which has only recently been discovered. Buildings of interest are the Ulu Camii and medreses.
The exact founding date of Elmali, which is located within the borders of ancient Lycia, is unknown. Excavations to the east at Karatas near the village of Semahoyuk, and to the west in the village of Beyler indicate that the area has been inhabited seen the Bronze Age.
Throughout history it has suffered the rising and falling fortune of the Lycian region, being ruled respectively by the Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman empires.
Tumuluses There are several tumuluses in nearby villages. The first is west of the city in the village of Mugren, on top of which sits a small fortress dating back to the Roman era. Surface-level archaeological research indicates that the area was inhabited in the Bronze Age by various civilisations. Another village to the west, Semahoyuk, has a tumulus but due to the fact that an Ottoman cemetery is located on top of it, no research has been done. The third and largest tumulus is in Beyler, south of the city on the Elmali - Kas road. Excavations conducted here show that the area has been continuously inhabited from the Bronze Age right up to the present time. The items unearthed in the excavations are exhibited in the Antalya Museum.
East of the city 6 km from the village of Elmali near the village of Bayindir, there are several tumuluses side by side. Artifacts dating back to the 7th century BC were unearthed during the excavations. Now on display in a special section of the Antalya Museum, these findings represent a cross-section of life during that era. A statuette of pure silver and two of ivory bear witness to the fact that the art of sculpture in ancient Anatolia had reached a level of some sophistication.
Memorial Tombs There are tombs in Karaburun and Kizilbel. The walls of the King's Tomb in Karaburun, on the Antalya - Elmali road, is decorated with frescoes of scenes of hunting and war. The tomb in Kizilbel is west of the city on the Elmali - Yuvayol road, and is a single room made of limestone blocks.
Define Described as the Treasure of the Century, this was discovered in 1984, just north of the Antalya - Elmali road between the King's Tomb and the village of Gokpinar. Consisting of 190 pieces of ancient silver coins, the treasure was smuggled to America by antique treasure thieves. It is still on display in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts as part of a private collection. The Athens Decadrachme, 14 pieces each worth US$600,000, is said to be the world's most valuable treasure find.
Mosques The most interesting mosques in the area include Selcuklu Camii, Kutuk Camii, Sinan-i Ummi Camii, Omer Pasa Camii and medrese.
Located 67 km from Antalya, Korkuteli is surrounded by Antalya on the east, Burdur to the north, Mugla to the southwest and Elmali and Kumluca to the south. The effects of the Mediterranean climate can be felt here in this region of lakes but the further one goes inland, the more continental the climate becomes with cold winters and hot summers.
3 km west of Korkuteli is the Alaaddin Mosque, only the door of which is still standing. In the same area is the Seljuk religious school which bears the name of its founde,r and was built by El Emin Sinaeddin of the Hamidogullari dynasty in 1319.
There are numerous ruins of ancient cities in the district of Gundogmus, 182 km from Antalya. The important ruins are those of Hagiasophia city, 7 km north of Guzel Bag Bucagi, but no excavations have been conducted here. There are also the ruins of Asar at Sumene (7 km from the city centre), Kese (2 km east of the village of Senir) and Gedfi (11 km southwest of Gundogmus).
Other places to visit in the area include the Cem Pasa Camii; the ruins on top of Sinek Mountain, 15 km east of the city centre between Gundogmus and Pembelik; and the ruins of Kazayir at Tasagir, on the Gundogmus - Antalya highway.
Situated 180 km from Antalya, Gazipasa is a charming little town with a beach 10 km long, beautiful forests and turquoise blue coves. Iskele, the site of the Koru and Kahyalar beaches, is an important breeding ground of the caretta caretta turtles. Mostly undeveloped up until the present time, Gazipasa is on its way to being an attractive tourist centre with accommodation, recreation facilities, an airport and yacht harbour still under construction, as well as the natural and historical treasures of the area.
Antiocheia Ad Cragum 18 km east of Gazipasa, and within the village of Guney, these ruins gets its name from the Commagene King Antiochus IV, and are found on the three hills that stretch out towards the sea. It has the ruins of a castle dating back to the Roman and Byzantine era, a column-lined boulevard, agora, baths, victory arch, a church and the city necropolis. The barrel-vaulted memorial tombs with their pre-entrance porticoes are well preserved and reflect a style peculiar to the region.
Adanda (Lamos) This ancient city is located 15 km northeast of Gazipasa, and was founded 2 km north of the present-day village of Adanda, on top of a high and steep hill. It is a walled city with a large tower south of the city gate, and among the ruins are a fountain carved into the living rock and two temples. Other significant ruins are the tombs in the necropolis made of single pieces of carved stone. These remains are a good representation of the culture and art of the mountainous Cilician region.
Nephelis This ancient ruin can be reached by going through the village of Muzkent 12 km out on the Gazipasa-Anamur road and taking the gravel road south for about 5 km. The southern area is surrounded by the sea and steep cliffs. The city consists of the acropolis and the remains of dwellings spread out in an east-west fashion. The only standing structures date back to the Roman and Byzantine periods and include a Medieval Castle, a temple, a musical hall, irrigation system and the necropolis.
Selinus Located on the slopes southwest of Hacimusa Creek by Gazipasa Beach, the ancient city of Selinus is one of the most important cities in the mountainous Cilician region. On top of the hill is the acropolis as well as the walls and towers of a medieval castle, which are fairly well preserved. In the Acropolis, a church and cistern have survived the ravages of time. The other buildings of Selinus are near the beach and on the slopes, among which are the baths, agora, Islami Yapi (mansion), aqueducts and the necropolis. Most of the bones in the Alanya Museum were brought from the Necropolis and allow the workshop in the museum to exist.
Situated on the plane formed by the silt carried down from the mountains by Alakir Creek and Gavur Brook, Kumluca is surrounded by the towns of Finike and Elmali. In the upper reaches of Alakir Creek fed by the springs coming from Onemli Mountains and the Beydaglar Mountains, there are trout and striped mullet.
Area : 11.868 km²
Population : 750.882 (1990)
Traffic Code : 20
Denizli famous with roosters, has rich history and culture. Denizli is a tourism center to be seen with its Hierapolis and Laodikeia, Tripolis, antic cities, hot springs and Pamukkale which is unique in the world with its travertines.
Distircts : Denizli (center), Acıpayam, Akköy, Babadağ, Baklan, Bekilli, Beyağaç, Bozkurt, Buldan, Tavas, Çameli, Çal, Çardak, Çivril, Güney, Honaz, Kale, Sarayköy, Serinhisar.
Erzurum is the biggest city of the Eastern Anatolian Region and is also a very ancient settlement place. As the city is established at the skirts of Palandöken Mountain, the city had gained great importance in the field of winter tourism during the recent years. The city houses numerous historically rich works of art and therefore the city is like a cultural center having the major potential for tourism.
Area: 30.715 km²
Population: 3.236.626 (1990)
Traffic Code: 06
The history of Ankara and its surroundings stretches back to the Hatti civilisation of the Bronze Age. Two thousand years before the time of Jesus, the Hittites become the dominant power of the region, and were then followed by the Phyrgians, Lydians and Persians. In the 3rd Century BC, a Celtic race known as the Galatians made Ankara their capital city. The name Ankara comes from the word 'Ancyra', which means 'anchor.'
Ankara gained prominence under the leadership of Ataturk during the national resistence which followed World War I. It was declared the capital of the new Turkish Republic on October 13th 1923 when the National War of Independence freed Turkey from foreign occupation.
Occupying one of the most prominent parts of the city is Anitkabir, the magnificent mausoleum constructed to commemorate Atatürk. This structure, which was completed in 1953, is a synthesis of antique and modern architectural themes, and proves the elegance and strength of Turkish architecture.
The oldest parts of the city surround the Castle. The Alaaddin Mosque found inside its walls is still one of the best examples of Selcuk art and wood craftsmanship, in spite of the fact that it was restored by the Ottomans. The area has experienced a rejuvenation with the restoration of many interesting old Turkish houses, and the opening a several art galleries and fine restaurants which feature examples of traditional Turkish cuisine. Near the gate of the castle is the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, which is a beautifully restored portion of the old bazaar. It contains priceless artifacts belonging to the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras as well as the Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartu and Roman civilizations.
Ankara has a vibrant cultural and artistic life with many select ballet, theatre, opera and folk dance performances. The city's Philharmonic Orchestra, which always plays to a packed house, is especially famous.
Altindag is 1 km from the city centre and has been occupied from prehistoric times. An important centre during the Selçuk and Ottoman periods, the city has many important sites of interest to visitors. Among them are the Ankara Castle, the Temple of Augustus, the pillar of Julian, the Roman Baths, the Republic memorial, the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, the State Museum of Painting and Sculpture, the Museum of Ethnography, the War of Independence Museum and the Museum of the Republic. Also in this district are the tombs of Karacabey, Ahi Serafettin, Haci Bayram Veli Efendi, Karyagdi, Gulbaba and Izzettin Baba and the Haci Bayram, Aslanhane, Ahi Elvan, Alaaddin, Zincirli, and Kursunlu Mosques.
One of the most important districts in Ankara, this large area contains many places of interest. The Ataturk Orman Ciftligi, Eymir Lake, Elmadag Ski Facilities, Ahlatlibel Sport and Entertainment Centre are all within this area.
The huge list of primary tourist attractions includes: Anitkabir, the Ataturk Museum, the Ataturk Memorial (Zafer Aniti-Sihhiye), the MTA Natural History Museum, the Security Memorial, the Ethnographic Ataturk Memorial, the Natural History Museum, the Archeology Museum of Middle East Technical University, the State Painting and Statue Exhibit, Memorial Park, the Botanical Garden, Abdi Ipekci Park, Guven Park, Kurtulus Park, Kugulu (Swan) Park, the National Sovereignty Park, Ahmet Arif Park and sport facilities such as the Municipal Ice Skating rinks and the Indoor Pool at 100 Yil. There is also a Toy Museum (Cebeci-Ankara University Education Faculty), the Hittite Memorial, Atakule and the Turkish National Parliament buildings.
Kecioren is one of Ankara's central districts, and host to the world's biggest meteorology centre, as well as several departments of Ankara University, the Ataturk Sanatorium and the Gulhane Military Medical Academy. Also here is the Old Ankara Agricultural School, used by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as a military headquarters during the War of Independence, and is now a museum.
Yenimahalle is within the city and has attractions which reflect the rich history of the area. Its highlight is the Akkopru Bridge, built in 1222 by the Selcuk ruler Ala'addin Keykubat along the old Bagdat Commercial road over Ankara Creek, which has four large arches and three small.
Outside the city
Akyurt is 33 km from the city centre, and was occupied from the Early Bronze Age until the 14th century. A large tumulus 15 meters high and 200-300 meters in diameter was found 1 km northeast of the village of Balikhisar, which is a settlement from the 3rd millenium BC, and belongs to the Early Bronze Age.
This area, located 58 km from Ankara, is famous for its thermal springs. The radioactive waters of the Karakaya thermal springs and the mineral drinking water, 23 km west of Ayas, are known to be beneficial for those in poor health. The vineyards at Karadere, Ova, Ariklari and Kirazdibi are some of the district's natural resources.
The forest at Beynam National Park, 35 km from Bala on the district border, is an important recreation spot for city residents of Ankara, as well as the locals of Bala.
Located 99 km from Ankara, Beypazari's history goes back to the Hittites and Phyrgians. Beypazari and its surroundings have been controlled by the Galatians, Romans, Selcuks and Ottomans, and at one time was an episcopal centre. From historical artifacts and ancient maps, we know that its original name of Lagania was later changed to Anastasiopolis.
This charming district is famous for its historical houses, silver craftsmen and for its carrots. Within the district are many places of interest, including the Bogazkesen tomb, Suluhan, the Old Baths, the Sultan Ala'addin Mosque, the Aksemseddin Mosque, the Kursunlu Mosque, the Rustem Pasa Baths, the tomb of Gazi Gunduzalp (Hirkatepe), Kara Davut's Tomb (Kuyumcutekke) and the tomb of Karaca Ahmet.
The Tekke Highlands
The Egriova highlands, 10 km from the town, the lake and geological structures resembling 'fairy' chimneys around the village of Dereli, are some of the district's more interesting sites.
The district of Camlidere is located 108km northwest of Ankara. There is a mosque belonging to the Selcuk period in the nearby town of Pecenek. It is possible to come across the remains of graves and settlements from the Byzantine Era as well.
Cubuk is 39 km from Ankara's city centre. The ruined castle at Aktepe and the Carved Rock (Oyulu Kaya) grave in the village of Karadana are remains of Hittite settlement. Later the area would be ruled by the Phrygians, Galatians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines and Selcuks respectively, and it was also area of some importance during the Ottoman Empire. The forest around Cubuk Dam and Lake Karagol are important recreation spots.
The Phrygians, Lydians, Persians and later Romans all ruled in the vicinity of Elmadag, located 41km from the city centre. The motifs and styles of the local hand-woven carpets, rugs, and various bags stretch all the way back to the Selcuk era. Carpet-making still happens in the villages of Tekke and Akcaali, while rugs and handwoven bags still preserve their cultural roots in the villages of Akcaali, Deliler, Hasanoglan, Karacahasan and Kayadibi.
The district of Etimesgut is 20 km from the center of Ankara. Both the Phrygians and Hittites are known to have had settlements in this area. This area was settled mostly by Turks immigrating from western Trakya after the declaration of the independent Turkish Republic.
The historical Gazi Train Station and the Etimesgut Train Station, which was used by Ataturk on his travels to and from Istanbul, are both interesting sites. Ahi Mes'ud and Ahi Elvan, both great important people, named this district and Ahi Elvan's Tomb is found in the courtyard of the Elvankoy Mosque.
The history of this area, situated 178 km from Ankara, dates right back to the Hittite Period. Within the district along the Evren-Sariyahsi road, about 2km from Evren, is a tumulus, at which have been found ceramic artifacts dating back to the first millenium AD. Sigircik Castle, 2km southwest of Catalpinar village, belongs to the late Byzantine and Ottoman period.
Situated 20 km from Ankara, Golbasi and the surrounding area is important to Ankara in terms of recreation, summer getaway and tourism, as well as hosting important industries. Mogan and Eymir lakes with their natural beauty, clean fresh air and fishing make the area appealing to tourists and locals.
The villages in this area all have a fascinating historical background, with many sites worth seeing. For example: the tumuluses and artifacts found in the villages of Selametli, Gokcehoyuk and Bezirhane; the Roman burial sites and columns in the village of Taspinar; the Byzantine coins and artifacts found in Karaoglan; and the remains of churches belonging to the early Christian period in the villages of Yurtbeyi and Karaoglan.
Located 89 km northwest of the Ankara, Gudul's history dates back to 3500-3000 BC. Huge caves found along Kirmir Creek, which flows through the district, have yielded evidence of Hittite settlement.
Haymana's thermal springs, 73 km from Ankara, are world-famous and were used even as far back as the Hittites. After the Hittites, the thermal spring facilities were repaired during the Roman era; and a town, whose ruins can still be seen, was founded 1.5 km east of Haymana and eventually became a therapy centre.
Situated 71 km from Ankara, Kalecik is believed to have first been inhabited in the early Chalcolithic Period between 3500-4000 BC. Notable historic sites in the district include the Hasbey, Saray and Tabakhane Mosques, the Tombs of Kazancibaba and Alisoglu, the Develioglu Bridge spanning the Kizilirmak River and Kalecik Castle.
Kazan It is not exactly known when Kazan, 45km from the city centre, was first established. Excavations have uncovered a number of historical artifacts demonstrating that the area has been used by number of different civilizations for settlement.
Situated 83 km from Ankara, Kizilcahamam is the most heavily forested town in the province. The Sey Hamami thermal springs, 16km from Kizilcahamam, have rich mineral waters which are among the most important thermal springs in the country.
Nallihan's history is similar to that of the surrounding cities. The county seat, Nallihan, 161 km from Ankara, was established in 1599 when Vizier Nasuhpasa had a han built there - hence the name. The roof of this 3000 sq. meter han is in poor repair, and the mosque and a Turkish bath date back to the same time. The Uluhan mosque in Uluhan (Kostebek) village was constructed in the 17th century, and is a valuable historical structure.
Polatli, 78km from Ankara, was established around 3000 BC but its centre then Gordion and the surrounding area, which was the largest Phrygian city in the world. Gordion was ruled in succession by the Hittites, Phrygians, Persians, Romans and Byzantines, and was added to the Ottoman Empire in 1516 by Yavuz Sultan Selim.
The village of Yassihoyuk and the surrounding area, which lies 20 km northwest of the present-day Polatli, can truly to considered a birthplace of history. There are 86 tumuluses and royal burial sites in the area, as well as numerous artifacts from the city.
148 km from Ankara, Sereflikochisar was first settled between 1400-1300 BC. In the Selcuk era there was a castle around the hill right next to the town, and a second castle on an even higher hill. The Salt Lake, which is the second largest lake in Turkey is also in this district. The Hirfanli Dam and lake found to the north provide irrigation for this arid region and there is fish farming as well. The Salt Lake, the Kursunlu Mosque, Kochisar Castle, and Parlasan Castle are all popular tourist destinations.
Area: 5.467 km²
Population: 289.509 (1990)
Traffic Code: 50
The province of Nevşehir is one of the major cities of Cappadoccia Region and displays a beautiful combination of nature and history. The geographic movements had formed the fairy chimneys and during the historical development process, mankind had settled and inhabited these natural wonders, fairy chimneys and carved houses and churches inside these formations and adorned these settlements with frescos, carrying the traces of the thousands of years of their civilizations.
Districts: Nevşehir (center), Acıgöl, Avanos, Derinkuyu, Gülşehir, Hacıbektaş, Kozaklı, Ürgüp.